It is transferred to humans through the bite of an Anopheles mosquito. Once an infected mosquito bites a human, the parasites multiply in the host’s liver before infecting and eliminating red blood cells. Malaria generally spreads by mosquitoes, and the infection cannot pass directly between people.
Symptoms look like those of flu, but, without treatment, the effects could sometimes be long-term and harmful. Travellers, hikers, and campers can save themselves with medication, pest control, clothing, and nets. Five types of Plasmodium parasites are found to infect human populations. They are found in dissimilar parts of the world. Some cause severe forms of symptoms than others.
Malaria occurs when a bite from the female Anopheles mosquito infects the body with Plasmodium. Only the Anopheles mosquito can transfer malaria. When an infected mosquito bites a human host, the parasite enters the bloodstream and lays dormant for sometime within the liver. After they multiply in the host’s liver, the new malarial parasites are then released back into the bloodstream, where they infect red blood cells and multiply further. Some malarial parasites remain in the liver and are not released until later, resulting in recurrence.The successful development of the parasite within the mosquito depends on several factors, the most important being humidity, and ambient temperatures.
Symptoms of the typical course of the disease usually last for 6 to 10 hours and reoccur every second day. Some strains of the parasite can have a longer cycle or cause varied symptoms. In uncomplicated malaria, symptoms develop as follows: through cold, hot, and sweating stages. Malarial symptoms can be classified into two categories: uncomplicated and severe malaria.
This is diagnosed when symptoms are present, but there are no signs to specify severe infection or dysfunction of the vital organs.This form can become severe malaria if left untreated, or if the host has a poor health condition. Symptoms of uncomplicated malaria typically last 6 to 10 hours and reoccur every second day. Some strains of the parasite can have a longer cycle or cause different symptoms.In uncomplicated malaria, symptoms progress as follows: cold, hot, and sweating stages:
a sensation of cold with shivering
fever, headache, and vomiting
seizures sometimes occur in younger people with the disease
sweating followed by a return to normal temperature, along with severe exhaustion.
In severe malaria, clinical or laboratory evidence shows signs of vital organ dysfunction.
Symptoms of severe malaria include:
fever and chills
prostration due to lethargy
deep breathing and respiratory distress
abnormal bleeding and signs of anaemia
clinical jaundice and evidence of vital organ dysfunction.
Diagnosis and tests
Early diagnosis is critical for a patient’s recovery.
Anyone showing signs of malaria should be tested immediately.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) strongly promote confirmation of the parasite across microscopic laboratory testing or by a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), depending on the facilities available.No integration of symptoms can reliably determine malaria from other causes, so a parasitological test is vital to recognize and manage the disease.
In some malaria-endemic areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa, the disease’s gravity can cause mild immunity in a large amount of the local population. As a result, some people support the parasites in their bloodstream but do not fall ill.
Treatment and prevention
Treatment objective is to eliminate the Plasmodium parasite from the patient’s bloodstream. Those without symptoms may be used for infection to diminish the risk of disease transmission in the surrounding population. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is approved by the WHO to treat uncomplicated malaria. Artemisinin is acquired from the plant Artemisia annua, better known as sweet wormwood. It is known for its ability to rapidly reduce the absorption of Plasmodium parasites in the bloodstream. The act is artemisinin combined with a partner drug.The role of artemisinin is to reduce the number of parasites within the first 3 days of infection.