A kidney stone is a hard mass that forms in one or both kidneys from minerals in the urine, and if large enough, can cause severe pain.Kidney stones form when there is not enough liquid in the urine to dilute out waste chemicals, such as calcium oxalate and phosphorus. These waste chemicals become concentrated, and crystals begin to form,

according to the National Kidney Foundation.The most common type of kidney stones is calcium oxalate stones.Kidney stones can vary in size, Small stones may pass down the urinary tract and be excreted without causing symptoms. Larger stones may get stuck in the urinary tract and block the flow of urine, which can cause severe pain or bleeding.Men are more likely to develop kidney stones than women.Risk factors include not drinking enough water, eating a diet high in protein, sodium and sugar, being obese, or undergoing gastric bypass surgery.


Kidney stones can be diagnosed by taking CT scan and urine test.


Small kidney stones don’t usually need treatment, but an individual may need to take pain medication.Patients with kidney stones should also drink lots of fluids, which can help the stone to pass. For large kidney stones, other treatments are needed. One treatment is called shock wave lithotripsy, during which a doctor uses a machine that produces strong vibrations known as shock waves to break the stone into small pieces so it can pass through the urinary tract.The second treatment, called ureteroscopy, uses a special tool called a ureteroscope to view the kidney stone in the ureter — the tube that connects the kidneys to the bladder. A doctor can then remove the stone or use laser energy to break it up.Very large stones may need surgery to remove them


The doctors recommend drinking about 2 to 3 litres, or 2 to 3 quarts, of fluid each day.For people who’ve had stones made of calcium oxalate, doctors may recommend that they avoid foods high in oxalate, such as spinach, rhubarb, nuts and wheat bran, the NIH says.

To prevent stones made of uric acid, doctors may ask patients to reduce their protein intake, because protein is associated with the formation of uric acid in the body.Reducing salt intake may also lower a person’s risk of several types of kidney stones, including calcium stones. Eating too much sodium can increase the amount of calcium in the urine.Some drugs can help prevent kidney stones, but these drugs are typically used only if a change in diet is not effective, Some drugs can help prevent kidney stones, but these drugs are typically used only if a change in diet is not effective,Some drugs can also reduce the acidity of the urine, because too much acid in the urine is a risk factor for stones made of uric acid.


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